Most frequent questions and answers
An accredited investor, in the context of a natural person, includes anyone who:
- earned income that exceeded $200,000 (or $300,000 together with a spouse) in each of the prior two years, and reasonably expects the same for the current year, OR
- has a net worth over $1 million, either alone or together with a spouse (excluding the value of the person’s primary residence)
On the income test, the person must satisfy the thresholds for the three years consistently either alone or with a spouse, and cannot, for example, satisfy one year based on individual income and the next two years based on joint income with a spouse. The only exception is if a person is married within this period, in which case the person may satisfy the threshold on the basis of joint income for the years during which the person was married and on the basis of individual income for the other years.
In addition, entities such as banks, partnerships, corporations, nonprofits and trusts may be accredited investors. Of the entities that would be considered accredited investors and depending on your circumstances, the following may be relevant to you:
- any trust, with total assets in excess of $5 million, not formed to specifically purchase the subject securities, whose purchase is directed by a sophisticated person, or
- any entity in which all of the equity owners are accredited investors.
In this context, a sophisticated person means the person must have, or the company or private fund offering the securities reasonably believes that this person has, sufficient knowledge and experience in financial and business matters to evaluate the merits and risks of the prospective investment.
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A rate of return often used in real estate transactions. The calculation determines the cash income on the cash invested.
Calculation: Annual Dollar Income Return / Total Equity Invested = CoCR
- When acquiring income property, the higher the capitalization rate (“Cap Rate”), the better.
- When selling income property, the lower the Cap Rate the better.
- A higher cap rate implies a lower price, a lower cap rate implies a higher price.
Investor funds are used for the total acquisition cost of the property. This includes but is not limited to the actual purchase price of the property, acquisition fees, legal and transaction costs, capital projects, and reserves.
Investors invest directly into the real property.
The limited partner (LP) is a partner whose liability is limited to the extent of the partner’s share of ownership. In apartment syndications, the LP is the passive investor and funds a portion of the equity investment.
Preferred Return: the threshold return that limited partners are offered prior to the general partners receiving payment.
The acquisition fee is the upfront fee paid by the new buying partnership entity to the general partner for finding, analyzing, evaluating, financing and closing the investment. Fees range from 2% to 5% of the purchase price, depending on the size of the deal.
The PPM (Private Placement Memorandum) is a document that outlines the terms of the investment and the primary risk factors involved with making the investment. The four main sections are the introduction, which is a brief summary of the offering, the basic disclosures, which includes general partner information, asset description and risk factors, the legal agreement and the subscription agreement.